Iraq’s population is estimated at 32,585,000, up from 31,234,000 (April 2009 IMF estimate).Iraq’s population was estimated to be 2 million in 1878.

Arabs form 75%–80% of the population. 15% of Iraq’s population are Kurds. Assyrians, Iraqi Turkmen/Turkoman and other much smaller minorities, such as Mandeans, Armenians, Circassians, Iranians, Shabakis, Yazidis and Kawliya, make up the remainder 5%–10% of the population.[ Around 20,000 Marsh Arabs live in southern Iraq.

Iraq has a community of 2,500 Chechens.In southern Iraq, there is a community of Iraqis of African descent, a legacy of the slavery practised in the Islamic Caliphate beginning before the Zanj Rebellion of the 9th century, and Basra’s role as a key port.It is the most populous country in the Arabian Plate.

Arabic is the majority language; Kurdish is spoken by approximately 10–15% of the population; and Turkmen/Turkoman,the Neo-Aramaic language of the Assyrians and others, by 5%.Other smaller minority languages include Mandaic, Shabaki, Armenian, Circassian and Persian. Arabic, Kurdish, Persian, and Turkmen/Turkoman are written with versions of the Arabic script, the Neo-Aramaic languages in the Syriac script and Armenian is written in the Armenian script.

Prior to the invasion in 2003, Arabic was the sole official language. Since the new Constitution of Iraq approved in June 2004, both Arabic and Kurdish are official languages,while Assyrian Neo-Aramaic and Turkmen/Turkoman language (referred to as respectively “Syriac” and “Turkmen” in the constitution) are recognised regional languages. In addition, any region or province may declare other languages official if a majority of the population approves in a general referendum.

According to the Iraqi constitution: “The Arabic language and the Kurdish language are the two official languages of Iraq. The right of Iraqis to educate their children in their mother tongue, such as Turkmen, Assyrian, and Armenian shall be guaranteed in government educational institutions in accordance with educational guidelines, or in any other language in private educational institutions”.

It is believed that the Kurdistan Region has a population of approximately 7 million. Iraqi Kurdistan has a young population with an estimated 36% of the population being under the age of 15.As of 2014, the resident population of Iraqi Kurdistan had reached 9.85 million people, including Iraqi nationals and foreign residents permanently staying in the region (most notably Syrian refugees). The ethnic make-up of Iraqi Kurdistan is diverse and includes Kurdish majority and significant ethnic minorities: Arabs, Turkmen, Assyrians, Armenians and ethno-religious groups of Shabaks, Kakai and Yazidis.

The Kurdistan Region’s official languages are Kurdish and Arabic. Kurdish is the most widely spoken language. The two main dialects of Kurdish are Sorani and Kurmanji in its Bahdini variant, but a part of the population also speaks Hawrami, especially in the Halabja region. In Shingal (also called Jebel Sinjar), people speak a Kurmanji dialect known as Shengali.Arabic, Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Armenian are also spoken by their respective communities.

The Shabaki and Yarsan (Ahl-e Haqq or Kakai) religions number around and 250,000 and 200,000 adherents respectively;these, like Yezidism, are sometimes said to be related to the pre-Islamic indigenous religion of Kurdistan. More recently the Zoroastrian faith has gained strength among the Kurds in the region, claiming up to 100,000 adherents as of 2015.

Iraqi Kurdistan has a religiously diverse population. The dominant religion is Islam, which is professed by the majority of Iraqi Kurdistan’s inhabitants. These include Kurds, Iraqi Turkmen, and Arabs, belonging mostly to the Shafi’i school of Sunni Islam. There is also a small number of Shia Feyli Kurds, as well as adherents of Sufi Islam. Christianity is professed by Assyrians and Armenians. Yezidis make up a significant minority, with some 650,000 in 2005,or 560,000 as of 2013,though those numbers decreased following the 2014 crisis in northern Iraq.